Tag Archives: feminism

The Woman Taking Her Clothes Off on the Flying Trapeze

Two views of a woman with very defined muscles, shown from the back with naked backs, arms in the air, and circus panties

Laurie and Debbie say:

Betsy Golden Kellem’s “The Trapeze Disrobing Act,” showcases a captivating little-known byway of feminist history.

… when Thomas Edison was testing motion picture technology in the early twentieth century, he figured a striptease would be the ideal subject.

But there’s a lot more going on in the resulting film than just erotic motion. Edison’s 1901 short featured the strongwoman Laverie Vallee, known professionally as Charmion, performing her “Trapeze Disrobing Act.” Edison may have intended to titillate, but Charmion, who combined extraordinary strength and a bodybuilder’s aesthetic with an expert sense of public tastes and emerging media, used her act to encourage turn-of-the-century women to embrace strength and action.

Implicit here is that Edison thought he was using Charmion, and almost certainly had no idea that she was also using him: she was getting paid to do what she was good at, with the bonus of being able to promote what she cared about–women’s physical power.

Kellem notes that this was the age of the “strongman,” the embodiment of both physical and moral strength; while strongmen were soon followed by strongwomen, the men were idolized and the women were freaks:

… unusually strong women were regarded as aberrant curiosities, described with wonder in the same breath as bearded ladies and living skeletons. (Strongwomen and the “singing strong lady,” who supported a piano and accompanist on a tabletop laid across her chest and legs, were listed in George Gould and Walter Pyle’s “Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine” at the turn into the twentieth century.)

Strongwomen found employment and increasing notoriety in circus and its allied arts, particularly as a combination of factors … made the circus tent an acceptable family destination. This not only destabilized the white-male basis of physical culture, it challenged popular ideas about female ability, all while showing a discomfiting amount of skin and startling muscle mass.

The amount of skin was discomfiting for the time; the muscle mass would still be somewhat startling today, but less so than it was 120 years ago.

Charmion seems to have been one of the most prominent strongwomen, and an extremely clever entertainer:

[In] 1897, Charmion astounded and delighted audiences with an unconventional aerial act in which she stripped from a full-skirted outfit down to her leotard and tights. In bringing together strength training, striptease, and aerialism in middle-class entertainment, Charmion was poking at a number of social hot-buttons. As physical culture scholar Bieke Gils points out, in a single act Charmion managed to argue for “women’s liberation from restrictive clothing, women’s ability to develop muscular strength like men, and the benefits of such ideas for their health and well-being.” A lot of people were suddenly nervous, confused, excited, or all of the above.

Kellem also quotes the inimitable Maria Popova:

“When women first began to work out with weights, it was considered dangerous to have them lift anything heavy and so they were given only two- or four-pound wooden dumbbells. The fact that women lifted much heavier objects in the home seems to have escaped most of the men who designed the exercise.”

Kellem’s concise, well-written article (and the Popova quotation) don’t address one important issue: whether or not women “lifted much heavier objects in the home” would depend entirely on the woman’s class status. Rich and affluent women lifted nothing in the home, though they may have cuddled and even picked up the occasional baby. Working-class women cleaned middle-class people’s homes and servants (often live-in servants) cleaned rich people’s homes, in a period when there were effectively no labor-saving devices: they washed every dish and every floor, washed, dried and pressed every piece of clothing, lifted and moved all the furniture, and so on. But Kellem’s and Popova’s point is still well-taken: it never occurred to men that women of their class could, should, or did do physical labor … but the women knew.

The ultimate delight of this essay lies in imagining the women in the audience for the live performance or Edison’s film, watching Charmion strip and suddenly visualizing their own bodies as they could be … and going home to find a private place to lift weights and change their shapes and self-images.


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The Only Women in the Room: Who Were They?

Laurie and Debbie say:

Immy Humes, author of the new book The Only Woman, summarizes her story for Smithsonian in “These Trailblazers Were the Only Women in the Room Where It Happened.

A huge percentage of the photographic record of Western culture is incredibly boring: endless large groups of formally dressed, formally arranged men facing the camera. Just look to class pictures from every imaginable school, association, company, office, club, court, government body and political movement (from the revolutionary to the regressive).

The overwhelming majority of these groups were all male—but it’s uncanny to see how many women snuck in, one at a time, to become the only woman in the room.

In the photo at the top of this blog, we see artist Hedda Sterne standing just above a group of painters many of whom are, as Humes puts it, “more famous than the photo itself—Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Willem de Kooning among them.” The occasion was a protest against the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s unwillingness to support abstract, “advanced” art, but the advanced painters, according to Sterne, “were very furious that I was in it because they all were sufficiently macho to think that the presence of a woman took away from the seriousness of it all.”


Here we have Anna Searcy, the first woman to study at the University of Missouri School of Medicine. The caption names her “class secretary” but we now know that she graduated with her M.D.  She was an orphan whose college was paid for by a charity fund, and entered the medical program in her 30s.


After the end of World War II, A.G. Stock, known to most as Dinah, is shown here acting as hostess to a  Pan-Africanist gathering. Stock, a lifelong committed anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist is described as the only white student who went to meetings of anti-colonialist South Asian students. Kwame Nkrumah, who founded the Pan-Africanist movement went on to be president of Ghana, is in the first seated row, at the far right.


Angela Ramos, feminist, suffragist, is often described as the first Peruvian woman journalist. She used her articles to fight for the oppressed, particularly workers cheated by their bosses, victims of rigid vagrancy regulations, and people in prison. In this photo, we also see communist José Carlos Mariátegui, directly behind her, wearing glasses. Ramos was a champion of Mariátegui. Here, they are in a Peruvian factory town where the workers had recently won an eight-hour workday. They were attending the annual Fiesta de la Planta in the Peruvian factory town of Vitarte (now Ate-Vitarte), where laborers had recently won an eight-hour workday. Ramos’ nickname was sor presa (sister of the imprisoned).


Here, Gloria Richardson, a local movement leader, is talking to men on the street in 1963, shortly after the governor of Maryland declared martial law, with the express intent of shutting down civil rights demonstrations. Then Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy wanted Richardson and her comrades to vote on a “treaty” with their small Maryland town. Richardson’s reply: “A first-class citizen does not plead to the white power structure to give him something that the whites have no power to give or take away. Human rights are human rights, not white rights.” She later shut down Kennedy at the White House when he asked her “if she knew how to smile.”

In these photos, and the others in the Smithsonian article, Humes shows us both the history of women in men’s spaces, and also the ways that a lone woman in a photograph — or at a historic event — can be more than a token, or an ornament. These women are key movers and shakers in the actions of their time.


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